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Profile of Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar :                                                                            Back To Main Page..


Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on 14th April, 1891 in Mahu Cantt in Madhya Pradesh. He was the fourteenth child.The life of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was marked by struggles but he proved that every hurdle in life can be surmounted with talent and firm determination. The biggest barrier in his life was the caste system adopted by the Hindu society, which was suffering with untouchability practice.

In the year 1908, young Bhimrao passed the Matriculation from Bombay University. He graduated in Political Science and Economics from Bombay University and got a job in Baroda. Around the same time his father passed away. Bhimrao decided to accept the opportunity to go to USA for further studies at Columbia University for which the Maharaja of Baroda awarded him a scholarship. Bhimrao remained abroad from 1913 to 1923.
During this period he had established himself as an eminent intellectual person. Columbia University had awarded him the Ph.D for his thesis, which was later published in a book form under the title "The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India". But his first published article was "Castes in India - Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development". In London from 1920 to 1923, he also completed his thesis titled "The Problem of the Rupee" for which he was awarded the degree of D.Sc. Before his departure for London he had taught at a College in Bombay and also brought out Marathi weekly whose title was 'Mook Nayak' (meaning 'Dumb Hero'). By the time he returned to India in April 1923, Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar had equipped himself fully to wage war against the practice of untouchability. Meanwhile the political situation in India had undergone substantial changes and the freedom struggle in the country had made significant progress.While Bhimrao was an ardent patriot on one hand and on the other hand he endevoured for the human rights or depressed, poor women, eradication of child labour and minimum wages policy for poor labourers in the society.

 

The problems of the downtrodden were centuries old. Daliths entry into temples was forbidden. They could not draw water from public wells and ponds, admission into schools was prohibited. To give up the above evils in 1927, he led the Mahad March at the Chowdar Tank at Colaba, near Bombay and got right to draw drinking water from the public tank. At that agitation he burnt copies of the 'Manusmriti' publicly. The temple entry movement launched by Dr. Ambedkar in 1930 at Kalaram temple, Nasik is another landmark in the struggle for human rights and social justice.

In 1935, he publicly proclaimed," I was born a Hindu because I had no control over this but I shall not die as a Hindu". After a while Dr. Ambedkar, organised the Independent Labour Party, participated in the provincial elections and was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly. During these days he stressed the need for abolition of the 'Jagirdari' system, pleaded for workers' Fight to strike and addressed a large number of meetings and conferences in Bombay Presidency. In 1939, during the Second World War, he called upon Indians to join the Army in large numbers to defeat Nazism, which he said, was another name for Fascism.

The Constituent Assembly entrusted the job of drafting the Constitution to a committee and Dr. Ambedkar was elected as Chairman of this Drafting Committee. While he was busy with drafting the Constitution, India faced several crises. The country saw partition and Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated. In the beginning of 1948, Dr. Ambedkar completed the draft of the Constitution and presented it in the Constituent Assembly. In November 1949, this draft was adopted with very few amendments. Many provisions have been made in the Constitution to ensure social justice for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and backward classes. Dr. Ambedkar was of the opinion that traditional religious values should be given up and new ideas adopted. He laid special emphasis on dignity, unity, freedom and rights for all citizens as enshrined in the Constitution.

On 24 May 1956, on the occasion of Buddha Jayanti, he declared in Bombay, that he would adopt Buddhism in October. On 0ctober 14, 1956 he embraced Buddhism along with many of his followers. The same year he completed his last writing 'Buddha and His Dharma'.

On 6th December 1956, Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar attained 'Mahaparinirvan'. In 1990, Late. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the chief architect of our Constitution, was bestowed with Bharat Ratna. The same year Dr. Ambedkar's life size portrait was also unveiled in the Central Hall of Parliament. The period from 14th April 1990-14th April 1991 was observed as 'Year of Social Justice' in the memory of Babasaheb, the champion of the poor and the downtrodden.

 
Babasaheb Ambedkar's Last Message :
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar paid a last visit of his life to Agra City on 18th March 1956. During this visit, he addressed a huge public meeting in which he said. "EDUCATED PEOPLE HAVE DECEIVED ME".
 
In His Address To Massagees :
"For the past 30 years, I am struggling to secure political rights for you people. I have got for you reserved seats in Parliament and in State Assemblies. I have got for you proper provisions for education of you children. Today, we can progress. It is now your duty to continue the struggle untidily for removal of educational, economic and social in-equality. For this purpose, you will have to be prepared for all sorts of sacrifices and even to shed your blood".
 
To Leaders :
"If somebody invites you in his place, you may go willingly. But you must not to thereby putting your own hut on fire. If that king quarrels with you some day and drive you out of his place, where will you go? If you want to sell out yourselves you may do so but not at the cost of destroying your organization. I DO NOT HAVE ANY DANGERS FROM OTHERS, BUT I FEEL DANGER FROM OUR OWN PEOPLE".
 
To Landless Labourers :
"I am more worried for the landless labourers of the villages. I could not do much for them. I cannot bear their sufferings and plights. The main reasons for their sufferings are that they do not have land. Therefore they are victims of Humiliations and atrocities. Unless and until they have land, they cannot emancipate themselves I'll struggle for it. If government puts my hurdle in it I will lead these people and will also give a legal bat for them, but I SHALL TRY TO SECURE LAND FOR THE LAND LESS".
 
To His Followers :
"Very soon I will embrace the religion of lord Buddha. It is a progressive religion. It is based on EQUALITY, LIBERTY AND FRATERNITY. I could search this religion through efforts of many years. Now I will become Buddhist very soon.

Then as an untouchable I will not be able to live with you. But as a real Buddhist I will continue to struggle for your welfare. I will not tell you to become Buddhist with me. I do not want BLIND FOLLOWERS. Only those who desire to take refuge in this great religion may embrace Buddhism, so that they remain in this religion with firm convictions and observe its code of conduct.

"Buddhism is a great religion. The founder of this religion Tathagat Buddha has propagated this religion and due to its good aspects it could reach every nook and corner of India. After its great fame, this religion became extinct in 1213 AD. There are many reasons for this. One of the reasons is also that the Buddhist Monks became addicted to Living luxurious and restful life. Instead of moving from place to place for propagation of the religion, they started taking rest. In Vihars and Indulging in Writing, books in praise (of Kings). NOW for re-establishing this religion, they will have to work hard. They will have to move door to door. We have very few monks m the society. Therefore, the common good people should also propagate the religion and perform its rights".
 
To GOVT. Employees :
There is some progress in education in our society. By acquiring education some people have to the higher positions. But this EDUCATED PEOPLE HAVE DECEIVED ME, I was hoping from them that after acquiring high education they would serve the society. But what I am seeing is that a crowd of small and big clerks have gathered around, who is busy in filling their belly. Those who are employed in government services, it is their duty that they should contribute willingly 20th part of their salary to the cause. Then only the society will progress. Otherwise only one family will improve. The boy who is educating in a village to entire society has expectation from him. One educated social worker can prove a boon for them.
 
To Students & Youth :

My appeal to the students is that after acquiring education. Instead of doing some clerical job, he should serve his village or locality people, by which, exploitation and injustice arising out of ignorance can be stopped. Your emancipation lies in the emancipation of the society.

Today my position is like a bi pole, supporting a huge tent. I am worried about when this pole will not be there. I am not keeping good health. I do not know when I will go away from you. I am not finding any young man, who will protect the interest of these crores of helpless and hopeless people. When I think that though I am so highly educated, a Brahmin who is cleaning the utensils in kitchen considers mean untouchable, what will happen to the crores of my brother's? I feel that if some young man comes forward (to take up my responsibility) will happily go away. My final words of advice to you is educate, Agitate and organize; have faith in yourself, with justice on our side, I do not see how we can lose our battle the battle to me is matter of joy. The battle is in the fullest sense spiritual. There is nothing material or social in it. For ours is a battle not for wealth or for power. It is battle for freedom. It is a battle for the reclamation of the human personality.

 
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